Mesopotamia, the cradle of civilizations, Bet Nahrain (house of two rivers-Tigris and Euphrates) are all names that refer to Iraq. Iraq is the home of many ancient civilizations such as Summerians, Akadians, Babylonians, and Assyrians. These civilizations had profound impact on Human civilization, including the first system of state governance, the first system of language writing, the first epic in literature (the Epic of Gilgamesh), the first constitution (the code of Hamurabi), and astrology. (Ur) is the Akadian city in south of Iraq, from which Abraham the father of prophets started his journey. Baghdad was founded in the 7th century AD, and became one of the most important centers of human civilization for about 500 years.
The population of Iraq constitutes mainly of Arabs, Kurds, Turkmans, and Chaldoassyrian syriacs. Islam is the religion of the majority of people in Iraq (96%). Other religions(4%) include Christians, Sabee’s, Izidees, and Jews.